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Daria Fista

Регистрация: 24 окт 2020
Offline Активность: 24 окт 2020 13:56

Обо мне

Everyone loves to travel, of course. And many tourists are interested in the architecture of the countries of the world. Traveling in Europe is becoming very affordable today. And European countries are rich in architectural masterpieces of a wide variety of styles and times.

For lovers of monuments of ancient architecture, the most interesting journey will certainly be a trip to Greece. In every corner, in every city of this amazing country, you will find majestic buildings, ancient memorials to the gods and graceful ancient columns. When traveling in Greece, you should definitely visit the Acropolis and the Temple of Zeus in Athens, the amazing ruins of the Delphic Temple of Apollo and the Temple of Poseidon, located at Cape Sounion.


Gothic - (French gothique, German gotisch, Italian gotico from Latin gothi, Middle-Latin gotthus, Greek gothos from Old Upper German gaut - source, part of the word included in the name of the river Gautelfr , hence the ethnonym) - a historical architectural and artistic style that prevailed in Western European art in the 13th-15th centuries.

The ancient Romans called Goths the barbarian tribes that invaded the empire from the north in the III-V centuries. The term appeared during the Italian Renaissance as a derisive nickname for "barbaric", primitive, receding into the past of medieval culture. Initially (c. 1476) it was applied to literature - to denote incorrect, distorted Latin. Medieval architecture was then called the general word "tedesca" (Italian "German"). There is an assumption that the word "Gothic" was first used by Raphael, the famous artist of the Renaissance, in a report to Pope Leo X (1513-1521) on the progress of construction of St. Peter's Cathedral (c. 1520; see Vatican) as a synonym for "barbaric architecture ", Contrasting it with" Roman ".

J. Vasari in his book "Biographies of the most famous painters, sculptors and architects" (1550) wrote that the fall of the Roman Empire entailed a period of oblivion of the "truly beautiful", marked by the dominance of "exhausted and outdated Greek style" (Italian maniera greca-see . the Italian-Cretan school) and "spoiled" Gothic. However, the term "Gothic" was more often used in France, where it was generally identified with the national style ("gothique"), similar to the designation of medieval art in England (lat. Opus anglicanum).


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Vasari also used the term "opus gothicum", but more often: "tedesco" or "tramontanii" (Italian "northerners"). In the XVII-XVIII centuries. the term “francus” (Latin “Frankish”) was used to designate medieval art, but this name did not take root. For a long time all medieval art was called "Gothic", and only by the end of the 19th century. - his late period, distinguished by the brightness of the original art style.

Early Middle Ages VI-XII centuries. it is customary to call it romance, or the art of the Romanesque period. Gothic is the crown of the Middle Ages, it is bright colors, gilding, shine of stained-glass windows, expression, prickly needles of spiers soaring into the sky, a symphony of light, stone and glass ...

The Gothic style characterizes the final stage in the development of medieval art in Western Europe. The Christian culture of the West entered a period of intensive development later than the eastern culture of Byzantium; its formation was hampered by the clash of different ethnic and religious traditions, the diversity of the landscape and the complexity of natural conditions, the migration of peoples. But then the same factors became the reason for the effective exchange of ideas, revelations and artistic discoveries. Byzantine art, on the contrary, constrained by dogmas and canons, turned out to be archaic, and its significance receded before the achievements of the West.

The main stimulus for the formation of Gothic art was the unique combination of the Christian worldview, the traditions of ancient culture, primarily the architecture of Rome, Latin writing, book miniatures, Roman-Celtic art crafts. The development of the new style was facilitated by the rapid growth of European cities and trade. The city cathedral became the focus of spiritual life. An additional impetus for the development of architecture was the need to gather in one place for Sunday mass the entire population of the growing city. The old Romanesque temples were too small for that. It is also important that the new style developed faster where spiritual and secular, royal power was strengthened, material resources were concentrated in the hands of powerful customers. Therefore, it is natural that the beginning of the history of the Gothic style was documented in the province of Ile-de-France, a small "island" in the north of France with its center in Paris. In 1136-1140. under the leadership of Abbot Suger (Suger; French Suger, 1088-1151), two spans of the main nave of the Abbey of Saint-Denis church were erected to the north of Paris. At the same time (c. 1133) a new vault construction was used in the cathedral of Durham in England. Abbot Suger was one of the most educated people of his time. Theologian, historian, adviser, in 1147 - regent of the French king Louis VII, in addition to philosophical writings, he wrote a treatise on the aesthetics of Christian architecture, in which he substantiated the symbolic meaning of many elements of architectural composition, including stained glass windows and a pointed arch.
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A paradoxical feature of the Gothic style, the perfect forms of which demonstrate irrationalism, dematerialization and the highest, mystical expression, is that the reason (but not the cause) of its appearance was technical achievements - the rational improvement of the building structure. In the East, in Byzantium, where the type of Christian temple was first formed, centric, cross-domed buildings turned out to be a more stable form. In the West, over time, elongated basilicas with a plan in the form of a Latin cross became predominant. Romanesque basilicas turned out to be convenient for conducting the service, since the attention of those entering, their progress along the nave - the main longitudinal room of the temple (the meaning of the French word nef from the Latin navis - "ship" is indicative), naturally turned to the altar. In Romanesque architecture, the naves were covered with a gable roof or heavy stone vaults. The load of such a ceiling was carried by the walls, they had to be made massive, with small windows. It was not possible to enlarge the space, expand such a building. In one case, builders were limited by the length of the logs of the timber floor; in the other, there is a lateral strut of stone vaults, “breaking down” the walls. Byzantine architects, having borrowed the Roman dome, within the framework of the cross-domed scheme developed by them, “extinguished” the lateral thrust of the four corner abutments of the dome space with a connected system of sails and small domes. We find the perfect solution to this problem in the Church of St. Sophia in Constantinople (532-537). In an elongated basilica, due to the asymmetry of the plan, a similar problem is more difficult to solve. Meanwhile, circumstances strongly demanded an increase in the internal space of the temple.

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Builders began to use cross vaults, obtained by intersecting two half-cylinders at right angles. This design is more perfect, it transfers the weight of the floor from the entire plane of the wall to the corner supports. But the weight of the stone vaults was too great: in some cases, their thickness reached two meters. This created a strong lateral thrust. It is impossible to block a large space in this way. In search of lightening of the vault, builders began to strengthen the frame arches formed at the intersections of the cross vaults, and to make the filling thinner. Frame arches were called ribs (French nervure - vein, rib, fold). Ribs connected the square supports to each other in terms of the nave spans. Gradually, the so-called connected system developed: for each square of the wide main nave, there were two smaller, side naves. This system provided great strength and a special rhythm of the inner space of the temple, dismembered by the alternating step of the central and side pillars and arcades. The lightening of the walls, the transfer of the weight of the vaults to the internal supports led to the emergence of a transitional Romano-Gothic style. But along with the new design, difficulties also appeared. The frame of the rib vault consisted of two diagonally intersecting arches and four lateral - "cheek" arches. With the traditional semicircular shape, the jaw arches turned out to be significantly lower than the diagonal ones, which made it necessary to lay out complex stripping out of stone. It was easiest to coordinate the height of the arches with each other by giving them a pointed, lancet shape instead of a semicircular one. At the same time, builders discovered that the higher and sharper the arch, the less it creates a lateral thrust on the walls and supports. High pointed arches, ribbed vaults and a frame system made it possible to cover huge spaces, infinitely increase the height of cathedrals, and gather many people under its arches. The increasing lateral thrust with increasing building height could be compensated for by a system of external support pillars - buttresses (French contreforse - "counterforce"), connected to the heels of the vaults by inclined arches, called flying buttresses (French arcboutant - "supporting arches"). Buttresses were known in architecture before - they can be seen in Byzantine and Romanesque buildings as thickening of the outer walls or stepped "retaining" pillars. But in the composition of Gothic cathedrals, the buttresses move away from the wall, line up in rows, including on the roof of the lower side aisles, and powerfully thrown flying buttresses, using different heights of the central and side aisles, create an original openwork, but unusually strong structure, reminiscent from a distance of a fantastic forest ... For greater reliability, the pillars-buttresses were loaded with pinnacles; seemingly exquisite ornaments, they actually "pressed" the buttresses to the ground with their weight.

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For French Gothic, the canonical structure of the frame vault, consisting of two semicircular diagonal arches - they were called "revive" (French augive from Latin augere - to strengthen, support), and four pointed "cheek" arches. The pointed arch itself was known in Ancient Mesopotamia, its properties were used by the Byzantines and Arabs in the 8th-9th centuries. The merit of Gothic is the creation of an integral constructive system. “The progress that marks the Gothic era,” wrote the architectural historian O. Choisy, “will be expressed mainly in the final and consistent solution of the dual task: laying out the vaults of the cross and achieving their stability. Gothic architecture will overcome the difficulties of calculating the use of ribbed vaults, and will solve the problem of stability by introducing flying buttresses ...

The history of Gothic architecture is the history of the rib and flying butt. " The release of the walls from the load made it possible to cut through them with huge windows - this stimulated the art of stained glass. The interior of the temple became high and light. So the technical necessity led to the creation of a new design, and that, in turn, an original artistic image. The birth of the Gothic style is an example of the artistic transformation of utilitarianism, construction into composition. It illustrates the main regularity of the process of shaping in art. The forms of architecture began to express not strength and stability, but the Christian idea of ​​striving upward, toward the sky - a content opposite to the functional meaning of a building structure. This mysterious metamorphosis can be experienced by entering the temple. We will see rows of thin bundles of columns, the tops of which are lost in the haze of vaults hovering overhead, or rather, under the sky, their thin ribs diverge like mysterious flowers.
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The walls seem to disappear in streams of light pouring from huge windows with colored glass. In fact, the vaults are incredibly heavy and crush with a huge weight, resting on buttresses that are carried outside the interior and therefore invisible to the viewer inside. Gothic builders - architects, apparatuses and "free masons" of itinerant cooperatives competed in who would raise the vaults of the cathedral higher - a symbol of freedom and independence of the medieval city. The ribbed vaults were formed from small wedge-shaped stones and over time they were so improved that they became elastic and light, radically changing the idea of ​​the gravity of a stone structure. One of the main features of the Gothic style was the dematerialization of form. The physical properties of the material no longer determined the nature of the visual image. The "visual weight" of the stone did not correspond to the physical one. Heavy and hard, it turned into the lightest lace of thread:

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